submitted by crypt0hodl1 to PundiX [link] [comments]
PrologueThis is a Concept Paper written to introduce the Function X Ecosystem, which includes the XPhone. It also addresses the relationship between the XPOS and Function X.
Pundi X has always been a community-driven project. We have lived by the mission of making sure the community comes first and we are constantly learning from discussions and interactions on social media and in real-life meetings.
As with all discussions, there is always background noise but we have found gems in these community discussions. One such example is a question which we found constantly lingering at the back of our mind, “Has blockchain changed the world as the Internet did in the ’90s, and the automobile in the ‘20s?”. Many might argue that it has, given the rise of so many blockchain projects with vast potential in different dimensions (like ours, if we may add). But the question remains, “can blockchain ever become what the Internet, as we know it today, has to the world?”
Function X, a universal decentralized internet which is powered by blockchain technology and smart devices.
Over the past few months, in the process of implementing and deploying the XPOS solution, we believe we found the answer to the question. A nimble development team was set up to bring the answer to life. We discovered that it is indeed possible to bring blockchain to the world of telephony, data transmission, storage and other industries; a world far beyond financial transactions and transfers.
This is supported by end-user smart devices functioning as blockchain nodes. These devices include the XPOS and XPhone developed by Pundi X and will also include many other hardware devices manufactured by other original equipment manufacturers.
The vision we want to achieve for f(x) is to create a fully autonomous and decentralized network that does not rely on any individual, organization or structure.
Due to the nature of the many new concepts introduced within this Concept Paper, we have included a Q&A after each segment to facilitate your understanding. We will continuously update this paper to reflect the progress we’re making.
Function X: The Internet was just the beginningThe advent of the Internet has revolutionized the world. It created a communications layer so robust that it has resulted in TCP/IP becoming the network standard.
The Internet also created a wealth of information so disruptive that a company like Amazon threatened to wipe out all the traditional brick-and-mortar bookstores. These bookstores were forced to either adapt or perish. The same applies to the news publishing sector: the offerings of Google and Facebook have caused the near extinction of traditional newspapers.
The digitalization of the world with the Internet has enabled tech behemoths like Apple, Amazon, Google and Facebook to dominate and rule over traditional companies. The grip of these tech giants is so extensive that it makes you wonder if the choices you make are truly your own or influenced by the data they have on you as a user.
We see the blockchain revolution happening in three phases. The first was how Bitcoin showed the world what digital currency is. The second refers to how Ethereum has provided a platform to build decentralized assets easily. The clearest use case of that has come in the form of the thousands of altcoins seen today that we all are familiar with. The third phase is what many blockchain companies are trying to do now: 1) to bring the performance of blockchain to a whole new level (transaction speed, throughput, sharding, etc.) and 2) to change the course of traditional industries and platforms—including the Internet and user dynamics.
Public blockchains allow trustless transactions. If everything can be transacted on the blockchain in a decentralized manner, the information will flow more efficiently than traditional offerings, without the interception of intermediators. It will level the playing field and prevent data monopolization thus allowing small innovators to develop and flourish by leveraging the resources and data shared on the blockchain.
The Blockchain revolution will be the biggest digital revolutionIn order to displace an incumbent technology with something new, we believe the change and improvement which the new technology has to bring will have to be at least a tenfold improvement on all aspects including speed, transparency, scalability and governance (consensus). We are excited to say that the time for this 10-times change is here. It’s time to take it up 10x with Function X.
Function X or f(x) is an ecosystem built entirely on and for the blockchain. Everything in f(x) (including the application source code, transmission protocol and hardware) is completely decentralized and secure. Every bit and byte in f(x) is part of the blockchain.
What we have developed is not just a public chain. It is a total decentralized solution. It consists of five core components: Function X Operating System (OS); Function X distributed ledger (Blockchain); Function X IPFS; FXTP Protocol and Function X Decentralized Docker. All five components serve a single purpose which is to decentralize all services, apps, websites, communications and, most importantly, data.
The purpose of Function X OS is to allow smart hardware and IoTs to harness the upside and potential utility of the decentralization approach. We have built an in-house solution for how mobile phones can leverage Function X OS in the form of the XPhone. Other companies can also employ the Function X OS and further customize it for their own smart devices. Every smart device in the Function X ecosystem can be a node and each will have its own address and private key, uniquely linked to their node names. The OS is based on the Android OS 9.0, therefore benefiting from backward compatibility with Android apps. The Function X OS supports Android apps and Google services (referred to as the traditional mode), as well as the newly developed decentralized services (referred to as the blockchain mode). Other XPhone features powered by the Function X OS will be elaborated on in the following sections.
Using the Function X Ecosystem (namely Function X FXTP), the transmission of data runs on a complex exchange of public and private key data and encryption but never through a centralized intermediary. Hence it guarantees communication without interception and gives users direct access to the data shared by others. Any information that is sent or transacted over the Function X Blockchain will also be recorded on the chain and fully protected by encryption so the ownesender has control over data sharing. And that is how a decentralized system for communications works.
For developers and users transitioning to the Function X platform, it will be a relatively seamless process. We have intentionally designed the process of creating and publishing new decentralized applications (DApps) on Function X to be easy, such that the knowledge and experience from developing and using Android will be transferable. With that in mind, a single line of code in most traditional apps can be modified, and developers can have their transmission protocol moved from the traditional HTTP mode (centralized) to a decentralized mode, thus making the transmission “ownerless” because data can transmit through the network of nodes without being blocked by third parties. How services can be ported easily or built from scratch as DApps will also be explained in the following sections, employing technologies in the Function X ecosystem (namely Function X IPFS, FXTP Protocol and Decentralized Docker).
f(x) Chainf(x) chain is a set of consensus algorithms in the form of a distributed ledger, as part of the Function X ecosystem. The blockchain is the building block of our distributed ledger that stores and verifies transactions including financials, payments, communications (phone calls, file transfers, storage), services (DApps) and more.
Will Function X launch a mainnet?Yes. The f(x) chain is a blockchain hence there will be a mainnet.
When will the testnet be launched?Q2 2019 (projected).
When will the mainnet be launched?Q3 2019 (projected).
How is the Function X blockchain designed?The f(x) chain is designed based on the philosophy that any blockchain should be able to address real-life market demand of a constantly growing peer-to-peer network. It is a blockchain with high throughput achieved with a combination of decentralized hardware support (XPOS, XPhone, etc.) and open-source software toolkit enhancements.
What are the physical devices that will be connected to the Function X blockchain?In due course, the XPOS OS will be replaced by the f(x) OS. On the other hand, the XPhone was designed with full f(x) OS integration in mind, from the ground up. After the f(x) OS onboarding, and with adequate stability testings and improvements, XPOS and XPhone will then be connected to the f(x) Chain.
What are the different elements of a block?Anything that is transmittable over the distributed network can be stored in the block, including but not limited to phone call records, websites, data packets, source code, etc. It is worth noting that throughout these processes, all data is encrypted and only the owner of the private key has the right to decide how the data should be shared, stored, decrypted or even destroyed.
Which consensus mechanism is used?
Practical Byzantine Fault Tolerance (PBFT).
What are the other implementations of Practical Byzantine Fault Tolerance (PBFT)?Flight systems that require very low latency. For example, SpaceX’s flight system, Dragon, uses PBFT design philosophy. [Appendix]
How do you create a much faster public chain?We believe in achieving higher speed, thus hardware and software configurations matter. If your hardware is limited in numbers or processing power, this will limit the transaction speed which may pose security risks. The Ethereum network consists of about 25,000 nodes spread across the globe now, just two years after it was launched. Meanwhile, the Bitcoin network currently has around 7,000 nodes verifying the network. As for Pundi X, with the deployment plan (by us and our partners) for XPOS, XPhone and potentially other smart devices, we anticipate that we will be able to surpass the number of Bitcoin and Ethereum nodes within 1 to 2 years. There are also plans for a very competitive software implementation of our public blockchain, the details for which we will be sharing in the near future.
f(x) OSThe f(x) OS is an Android-modified operating system that is also blockchain-compatible. You can switch seamlessly between the blockchain and the traditional mode. In the blockchain mode, every bit and byte is fully decentralized including your calls, messages, browsers and apps. When in traditional mode, the f(x) OS supports all Android features.
Android is the most open and advanced operating system for smart hardware with over 2 billion monthly active users. Using Android also fits into our philosophy of being an OS/software designer and letting third-party hardware makers produce the hardware for the Function X Ecosystem.
What kind of open source will it be?This has not been finalized, but the options we are currently considering are Apache or GNU GPLv3.
What kind of hardware will it work on?The f(x) OS works on ARM architecture, hence it works on most smartphones, tablet computers, smart TVs, Android Auto and smartwatches in the market.
Will you build a new browser?We are currently using a modified version of the Google Chrome browser. The browser supports both HTTP and FXTP, which means that apart from distributed FXTP contents, users can view traditional contents, such ashttps://www.google.com.
What is the Node Name System (NNS)?A NNS is a distributed version of the traditional Domain Name System. A NNS allows every piece of Function X hardware, including the XPhone, to have a unique identity. This identity will be the unique identifier and can be called anything with digits and numbers, such as ‘JohnDoe2018’ or ‘AliceBob’. More on NNS in the following sections.
Will a third-party device running the f(x) OS be automatically connected to the f(x) blockchain?
Yes, third-party devices will be connected to the f(x) blockchain automatically.
f(x) FXTPA transmission protocol defines the rules to allow information to be sent via a network. On the Internet, HTTP is a transmission protocol that governs how information such as website contents can be sent, received and displayed. FXTP is a transmission protocol for the decentralized network.
FXTP is different from HTTP because it is an end-to-end transmission whereby your data can be sent, received and displayed based on a consensus mechanism rather than a client-server based decision-making mechanism. In HTTP, the server (which is controlled by an entity) decides how and if the data is sent (or even monitored), whereas in FXTP, the data is sent out and propagates to the destination based on consensus.
HTTP functions as a request–response protocol in the client-server computing model. A web browser, for example, may be the client and an application running on a computer hosting a website may be the server. FXTP functions as a propagation protocol via a consensus model. A node that propagates the protocol and its packet content is both a “client” and a “server”, hence whether a packet reaches a destination is not determined by any intermediate party and this makes it more secure.
f(x) IPFSIPFS is a protocol and network designed to store data in a distributed system. A person who wants to retrieve a file will call an identifier (hash) of the file, IPFS then combs through the other nodes and supplies the person with the file.
The file is stored on the IPFS network. If you run your own node, your file would be stored only on your node and available for the world to download. If someone else downloads it and seeds it, then the file will be stored on both your node the node of the individual who downloaded it (similar to BitTorrent).
IPFS is decentralized and more secure, which allows faster file and data transfer.
f(x) DDockerDocker is computer program designed to make it easier to create, deploy, and run applications. Containers allow a developer to package up an application including libraries, and ship it all out as a package.
As the name suggests, Decentralized Docker is an open platform for developers to build, ship and run distributed applications. Developers will be able to store, deploy and run their codes remote in different locations and the codes are secure in a decentralized way.
Beyond crypto: First true blockchain phone that is secured and decentralized to the coreXPhone is the world’s first blockchain phone which is designed with innovative features that are not found on other smartphones.
Powered by Function X, an ecosystem built entirely on and for the blockchain, XPhone runs on a new transmission protocol for the blockchain age. The innovation significantly expands the use of blockchain technology beyond financial transfers.
Unlike traditional phones which require a centralized service provider, XPhone runs independently without the need for that. Users can route phone calls and messages via blockchain nodes without the need for phone numbers.
Once the XPhone is registered on the network, for e.g., by a user named Pitt, if someone wants to access Pitt’s publicly shared data or content, that user can just enter FXTP://xxx.Pitt. This is similar to what we do for the traditional https:// protocol.
Whether Pitt is sharing photos, data, files or a website, they can be accessed through this path. And if Pitt’s friends would like to contact him, they can call, text or email his XPhone simply by entering “call.pitt”, “message.pitt”, or “mail.pitt”.
The transmission of data runs on a complex exchange of public and private key data with encryption. It can guarantee communication without interception and gives users direct access to the data shared by others. Any information that is sent or transacted over the Function X Blockchain will also be recorded on the chain.
Toggle between now and the futureBlockchain-based calling and messaging can be toggled on and off on the phone operating system which is built on Android 9.0. XPhone users can enjoy all the blockchain has to offer, as well as the traditional functionalities of an Android smartphone.
We’ll be sharing more about the availability of the XPhone and further applications of Function X in the near future.
DApps for mass adoptionSo far the use of decentralized applications has been disappointing. But what if there was a straightforward way to bring popular, existing apps into a decentralized environment, without rebuilding everything? Until now, much of what we call peer-to-peer or ‘decentralized’ services continue to be built on centralized networks. We set out to change that with Function X; to disperse content now stored in the hands of the few, and to evolve services currently controlled by central parties.
Use Cases: Sharing economyAs seen from our ride-hailing DApp example that was demonstrated in New York back in November 2018, moving towards true decentralization empowers the providers of services and not the intermediaries. In the same way, the XPhone returns power to users over how their data is being shared and with whom. Function X will empower content creators to determine how their work is being displayed and used.
Use Cases: Free namingOne of the earliest alternative cryptocurrencies, Namecoin, wanted to use a blockchain to provide a name registration system, where users can register their names to create a unique identity. It is similar to the DNS system mapping to IP addresses. With the Node Name System (NNS) it is now possible to do this on the blockchain.
NNS is a distributed version of the traditional Domain Name System. A NNS allows every piece of Function X hardware, including the XPhone, to have a unique identifier that can be named anything with digits and numbers, such as ‘JohnDoe2018’ or ‘AliceBob’.
Use Cases: Mobile data currencyAccording to a study, mobile operator data revenues are estimated at over $600 billion USD by 2020, equivalent to $50 billion USD per month [appendix]. Assuming users are able to use services such as blockchain calls provided by XPhone (or other phones using Function X) the savings will be immense and the gain from profit can be passed on to providers such as DApp developers in Function X. In other words, instead of paying hefty bills to a mobile carrier for voice calls, users can pay less by making blockchain calls, and the fees paid are in f(x) coins. More importantly users will have complete privacy over their calls.
Use Cases: Decentralized file storage
Ethereum contracts claim to allow for the development of a decentralized file storage ecosystem, “where individual users can earn small quantities of money by renting out their own hard drives and unused space can be used to further drive down the costs of file storage.” However, they do not necessarily have the hardware to back this up. With the deployment of XPOS, smart hardware nodes and more, Function X is a natural fit for Decentralized File Storage. In fact, it is basically what f(x) IPFS is built for.
These are just four examples of the many use cases purported, and there can, will and should be more practical applications beyond these; we are right in the middle of uncharted territories.
Decentralized and autonomousThe f(x) ecosystem is fully decentralized. It’s designed and built to run autonomously in perpetuity without the reliance or supervision of any individual or organization. To support this autonomous structure, f(x) Coin which is the underlying ‘currency’ within the f(x) ecosystem has to be decentralized in terms of its distribution, allocation, control, circulation and the way it’s being generated.
To get the structure of f(x) properly set up, the founding team will initially act as ‘initiators’ and ‘guardians’ of the ecosystem. The role of the team will be similar to being a gatekeeper to prevent any bad actors or stakeholders playing foul. At the same time, the team will facilitate good players to grow within the ecosystem. Once the f(x) ecosystem is up and running, the role of the founding team will be irrelevant and phased out. The long term intention of the team is to step away, allowing the ecosystem to run and flourish by itself.
UtilityIn this section, we will explore the utility of the f(x) Coin. f(x) Coin is the native ‘currency’ of the Function X blockchain and ecosystem. All services rendered in the ecosystem will be processed, transacted with, or “fueled” by the f(x) Coin. Some of the proposed use cases include:
Example 1: A developer creates a ride-hailing DApp called DUber.
DUber developer first uploads the image and data to IPFS (storage) and code to DDocker, respectively. The developer then pays for a decentralized code hosting service provided by the DDocker, and a decentralized file hosting service provided by the IPFS. Please note the storage hosting and code hosting services can be provided by a company, or by a savvy home user with smart nodes connected to the Function X ecosystem. Subsequently, a DUber user pays the developer.
Example 2: User Alice sends an imaginary token called ABCToken to Bob.
ABCToken is created using Function X smart contract. Smart nodes hosted at the home of Charlie help confirms the transaction, Charlie is paid by Alice (or both Alice and Bob).
The flow of f(x) CoinFour main participants in f(x): Consumer (blue), Developer (blue), Infrastructure (blue), and Financial Service Provider (green)
Broadly speaking, there can be four main participants in the f(x) ecosystem, exhibited by the diagram above:
Figure: four main participants of the ecosystem The rationale behind f(x) Coin generation is the Proof of Service concept (PoS)Service providers are crucial in the whole f(x) Ecosystem, the problem of motivation/facilitation has become our priority. We have to align our interests with theirs. Hence, we have set up a Tipping Jar (similar to mining) to motivate and facilitate the existing miners shift to the f(x) Ecosystem and become part of the infrastructure service provider or attract new players into our ecosystem. Income for service provider = Service fee (from payer) + Tipping (from f(x) network generation)
The idea is that the f(x) blockchain will generate a certain amount of f(x) Coin (diminishing annually) per second to different segments of service provider, such as in the 1st year, the f(x) blockchain will generate 3.5 f(x) Coin per second and it will be distributed among the infrastructure service provider through the Proof of Service concept. Every service provider such as infrastructure service providers, developers and financial service providers will receive a ‘certificate’ of Proof of Service in the blockchain after providing the service and redeeming the f(x) Coin.
Example: There are 3 IPFS providers in the market, and the total Tipping Jar for that specific period is 1 million f(x) Coin. Party A contributes 1 TB; Party B contributes 3 TB and Party C contributes 6 TB. So, Party A will earn 1/10 * 1 million = 100k f(x) Coin; Party B will earn 3/10 * 1 million = 300k f(x) Coin. Party C will earn 6/10 * 1 million = 600k f(x) Coin.
Note: The computation method of the distribution of the Tipping Jar might vary due to the differences in the nature of the service, period and party.
Figure: Circulation flow of f(x) Coin
The theory behind the computation.Blockchain has integrated almost everything, such as storage, scripts, nodes and communication. This requires a large amount of bandwidth and computation resources which affects the transaction speed and concurrency metric.
In order to do achieve the goal of being scalable with high transaction speed, the f(x) blockchain has shifted out all the ‘bulky’ and ‘heavy duty’ functions onto other service providers, such as IPFS, FXTP, etc. We leave alone what blockchain technology does best: Calibration. Thus, the role of the Tipping Jar is to distribute the appropriate tokens to all participants.
Projected f(x) Coin distribution per second in the first year
According to Moore’s Law, the number of transistors in a densely integrated circuit doubles about every 18 -24 months. Thus, the performance of hardware doubles every 18-24 months. Taking into consideration Moore’s Law, Eric Schmidt said if you maintain the same hardware specs, the earnings will be cut in half after 18-24 months. Therefore, the normal Tipping Jar (reward) for an infrastructure service provider will decrease 50% every 18 months. In order to encourage infrastructure service providers to upgrade their hardware, we have set up another iteration and innovation contribution pool (which is worth of 50% of the normal Tipping Jar on the corresponding phase) to encourage the infrastructure service provider to embrace new technology.
According to the Andy-Bill’s law, “What Andy gives, Bill takes away”; software will always nibble away the extra performance of the hardware. The more performance a piece of hardware delivers, the more the software consumes. Thus, the developer will always follow the trend to maintain and provide high-quality service. The Tipping Jar will increase by 50% (based upon the previous quota) every 18 months.
Financial service providers will have to support the liquidation of the whole ecosystem along the journey, the Tipping Jar (FaaS) will increase by 50% by recognizing the contribution and encouraging innovation.
From the 13th year (9th phase), the Tipping Jar will reduce by 50% every 18 months. We are well aware that the “cliff drop” after the 12th year is significant. Hence, we have created a 3year (two-phase) diminishing transition period. The duration of each phase is 18 months. There are 10 phases in total which will last for a total of 15 years.
According to Gartner’s report, the blockchain industry is forecast to reach a market cap of
3.1 trillion USD in 2030. Hence, we believe a Tipping Jar of 15 years will allow the growth of Function X into the “mature life cycle” of the blockchain industry.
f(x) Coin / Token AllocationToken allocation We believe great blockchain projects attempt to equitably balance the interests of different segments of the community. We hope to motivate and incentivize token holders by allocating a total of 65% of tokens from the Token Generation Event (TGE). Another 20% is allocated to the Ecosystem Genesis Fund for developer partnerships, exchanges and other such related purposes. The remaining 15% will go to engineering, product development and marketing. There will be no public or private sales for f(x) tokens.
NPXS / NPXSXEM is used to make crypto payments as easy as buying bottled water, while f(x) is used for the operation of a decentralized ecosystem and blockchain, consisting of DApps and other services. NPXS / NPXSXEM will continue to have the same functionality and purpose after the migration to the Function X blockchain in the future. Therefore, each token will be expected to assume different fundamental roles and grant different rights to the holders.
65% of allocation for NPXS / NPXSXEM holders is broken down into the following: 15% is used for staking (see below) 45% is used for conversion to f(x) tokens. (see below) 5% is used for extra bonus tasks over 12 months (allocation TBD).
Remarks All NPXS / NPXSXEM tokens that are converted will be removed from the total supply of NPXS / NPXSXEM; Pundi X will not convert company's NPXS for f(x) Tokens. This allocation is designed for NPXS/NPXSXEM long term holders. NPXS / NPXSXEM tokens that are converted will also be entitled to the 15% f(x) Token distribution right after the conversion.
UsageManagement of the Ecosystem Genesis Fund (EGF)
The purpose of setting up the Ecosystem Initialization Fund, is to motivate, encourage and facilitate service providers to join and root into the f(x) Ecosystem and, at the same time, to attract seed consumers to enrich and enlarge the f(x) Ecosystem. EIF comes from funds raised and will be used as a bootstrap mechanism to encourage adoption before the Tipping Jar incentives fully kicks in.
The EGF is divided into 5 parts:
SummaryTime moves fast in the technology world and even faster in the blockchain space. Pundi X’s journey started in October 2017, slightly over a year ago, and we have been operating at a lightning pace ever since, making progress that can only be measured in leaps and bounds. We started as a blockchain payment solution provider and have evolved into a blockchain service provider to make blockchain technology more accessible to the general public, thereby improving your everyday life.
The creation of Function X was driven by the need to create a better suited platform for our blockchain point-of sale network and through that process, the capabilities of Function X have allowed us to extend blockchain usage beyond finance applications like payment solutions and cryptocurrency.
The complete decentralized ecosystem of Function X will change and benefit organizations, developers, governments and most importantly, society as a whole.
The XPhone prototype which we have created is just the start to give everyone a taste of the power of Function X on how you can benefit from a truly decentralized environment. We envision a future where the XPOS, XPhone and other Function X-enabled devices work hand-in-hand to make the decentralized autonomous ecosystem a reality.
You may wonder how are we able to create such an extensive ecosystem within a short span of time? We are fortunate that in today’s open source and sharing economy, we are able to tap onto the already established protocols (such as Consensus algorithm, FXTP, etc), software (like Android, IPFS, PBFT, Dockers, etc.) and hardware (design knowledge from existing experts) which were developed by selfless generous creators. Function X puts together, aggregates and streamlines all the benefits and good of these different elements and make them work better and seamlessly on the blockchain. And we will pay it forward by making Function X as open and as decentralized as possible so that others may also use Function X to create bigger and better projects.
To bring Function X to full fruition, we will continue to operate in a transparent and collaborative way. Our community will continue to be a key pillar for us and be even more vital as we get Function X up and running. As a community member, you will have an early access to the Function X ecosystem through the f(x) token conversion.
We hope you continue to show your support as we are working hard to disrupt the space and re-engineer this decentralized world.
ReferencePractical Byzantine Fault Tolerance
Byzantine General Problem technical paper
Global mobile data revenues to reach $630 billion by 2020
NPXSXEM token supply
NPXS circulating token supply and strategic purchaser
[total supply might differ from time to time due to token taken out of total supply aka “burn”]
ELC: SpaceX lessons learned (PBFT mentioned) https://lwn.net/Articles/540368/
submitted by trustnoteinc to encryption [link] [comments]
Based on cryptocurrency technology, TrustNote rearchitected the world's top secure encrypted notes app. With end-to-end encryption, all notes were strongly encrypted and were signed by user's private key, and were synced in real time with multiple servers and multiple devices.
WHY IS TRUSTNOTE A REAL SECURE ENCRYPTED NOTES APP?
A TrustNote block
Every note was encrypted and was signed with user’s private key, we call it a TrustNote block.
And, all the blocks build a virtual block-chain, looks like this:
Secure Encryption Algorithm
TrustNote encrypt notes by AES-256 encryption algorithm. The AES-256 is currently the most secure encryption algorithm recommended by the US military. The diagram below shows the process how TrustNote generates an AES-256 secret.
Secure Unique Key TrustNote generates a global unique private key for every user by the same algorithm as Bitcoin generating a private key for users, and helps users back up the private key via mnemonic. The security of Bitcoin is absolutely trustworthy, and so is TrustNote's private key.
End-to-End Encryption TrustNote strongly encrypt notes by AES-256 encryption algorithm before they were sent to others over the network. Therefore, no matter what type of network eavesdropping, attackers will get nothing while the notes were transmitting on the network. TrustNote has the ability to promise you that nobody except yourself would know what you noted.
Data Signature TrustNote signed notes with ECDSA algorithm by user’s private key. If a TrustNote block coming from network fails to pass the signature verification, this block will be discarded. So, even if the storage server was hacked, it is impossible to tamper with any of your notes by attackers.
Key Protection To protect user’s private key, TrustNote encrypts the mnemonic(for generating/restoring deterministic private key) multiple times with AES-256 encryption algorithm by a password user set.
Completely Encrypted TrustNote strongly encrypted the original contents of every note with AES-256 encryption algorithm by user’s private key and then save it into the local storage on user’s device.
Completely Decentralized TrustNote does not have any centralized servers. All your notes were saved on peer-to-peer network and synced by hubs like Github or ipfs all over the world. TrustNote has the ability to keep notes synchronizing with multiple third-party servers and multiple devices in real time by block-chain technology. Comparing with traditional network applications, there is no registration required, no sign in required. But the most important thing is that you have to keep your private key mnemonic in a safe place.
for more details, please visit https://www.trustnote.com/
|mescon & SyNiK4L||https://i.imgur.com/gqdVM6p.jpg||https://github.com/mescon/Muximux|
submitted by BasicConversation9 to u/BasicConversation9 [link] [comments]
1. Online multiplayer should not be locked behind a paywall.In response to the argument that the subscription will improve the servers that handle online matchmaking etc.
How is paying a subscription to Nintendo going to help fix the rubbish internet connectivity offered by my ISP. Could someone please explain?
If it does anything it will probably make it that much more difficult for me to upgrade to a better ISP/ network hardware. So it won't improve online multiplayer, there will still be plenty of disconnections and lagging players.
That isn’t to say that their online service will be bad. However I do believe that it will be the same as it was for the Wii U, and the same as it is now, currently, for the Switch.
This is the reality of the situation, if a player's internet connection is poor, then improving and upgrading the servers in some way isn't going to make any real difference.
The fact is there are reasons for using a dedicated serve servers for each game type, and Nintendo simply aren't going to implement them for smaller networks which are easy to manage, and in fact work faster without that middleman.
Dedicated servers won't improve games like Splatoon 2, Mario Kart 8 Deluxe or Smash Ultimate, since, for those games at least, it is quicker to communicate Peer to Peer, rather than Peer to Server to Peer again.
The diagrams below are simplified to show what a basic Client/Server topology looks like vs a Peer to Peer one.
Fortnite Battle Royale uses the Client/Server model because there are up to 100 players participating in each round.
In reality in the case of Fortnite Battle Royale there would be up to 100 consoles connected to a remote server. Large networks like this are not as easy to achieve using Peer to Peer. So they trade the faster, direct, distributed connections for the slower, indirect, bundled connections, because this would not be manageable without the server in between.
Splatoon 2 does not have that many players all playing simultaneously in each match. Hence it uses either the Peer to Peer model or the Client Hosted model, because these are more efficient for games with small numbers of players.
In Splatoon there are only up to 8 players in each match, which means 8 consoles, so the network is smaller, more easily manageable, and they can use direct connections (which are faster) between all the consoles.
So you should not pay the subscription, because they have no intention of implementing dedicated servers for these games. This is part of the reason online multiplayer should be free, since not every online game will benefit from dedicated servers.
Client/ Server vs Peer to Peer
"I've seen people time and time again say dedicated servers will make everything better, and that is a gross over generalisation, and it is not as straightforward as that. For example something like Splatoon 2 would probably actually benefit from being this whole Peer to Peer thing that we've got at the moment."Source;
"Peer-to-peer is generally considered obsolete for action games, but is still common in the real-time strategy genre due to its suitability for games with large numbers of tokens and small numbers of players. Instead of constantly transmitting the positions of 1000 troops, the game can make a one-off transmission of the fact that 1000 troops are selected and that the player in command of them just issued a move order."Source;
So it is dependent on the type of game, whether or not to use Peer to Peer. For something that has low numbers of players like Mario Kart 8 Deluxe, Splatoon 2 and Smash Ultimate, either the Peer to Peer model or the Client Hosted model is used. However for something with hundreds of players or more, like an MMO, dedicated servers or the Client/Server model is used.
Where small numbers of players are involved it is quicker for each console to talk directly to one another, than it is for them to have to go through a remote server to get the information to one another.
I have already solved my problems with lag and disconnecting, and they aren't simply to do with the fact that they are using Peer to Peer or Client Hosted networking models for these games. If Peer to Peer was so hopeless, as many people claim, Bitcoin, the world's most successful decentralised crypto-currency would not be able to function.
Even if Nintendo were to implement dedicated servers for one or two of their online games, Fortnite Battle Royale already has dedicated servers, provided by a third party for free, so what are we paying Nintendo for again? Also Steam on PC has a variety of online multiplayer games that use dedicated servers, but they seem to be able to sustain those servers, despite the fact that it is free to play online.
You need a Wii LAN adapter.
(Also, do not use Powerline kits. The reason why powerline is also affected by this relates to the way data is transmitted in the electrical circuit of your home, using a certain frequency, or range of frequencies in the case of multiple powerline adapters. So powerline data transmission may also suffer from problems with interference, due to electrical noise that may be present in that circuit. This is another important piece of information to remember, as many people who start using a wired Ethernet connection may be under the impression that it does not improve online multiplayer, if they are still using it in combination with a powerline kit.)
"Most of the networking issues in online games are caused inside the player's local network, where WiFi and powerline are the biggest offenders.When I first started playing online multiplayer, I was relying on a Wi-Fi connection to my Router, and I was experiencing a lot of lag and disconnections. I searched for a reason for this problem, and I found that Wi-Fi does not provide a stable enough connection between the console and your gateway. It was only when I started using a Wired Ethernet connection to my Router that I could play without the massive number of disconnections I was experiencing.
You will still experience a few disconnections occasionally, since the stability of the game depends on not just your connection, but that of the other players (who also need to be using wired LAN or you will still experience lag).
If any of the other 7 players in Splatoon are not using a LAN adapter, you will see them lag and possibly disconnect in the game. But I must emphasise that even if they did completely rewrite Splatoon 2 to use dedicated servers, you would still see those players lagging and disconnecting because this is a problem related to the notorious instability that you experience when using Wi-Fi. So it is the players local connection that really makes the difference.
There is a simple test you can use to verify what I am talking about regarding Wi-Fi instability.
If you have a PC or Laptop which has both a wired Ethernet adapter and a Wi-Fi adapter, you can run the ping command to check the latency of the connection between the computer and your gateway/ router, by pinging the IP address of the gateway/ router.
I ran this test using a Wi-Fi connection to my router from my PC. I could see how the latency of the connection between the PC and router was constantly going up and down, which isn't good for real time communication and stability.
I ran the test again using the same PC and router, but this time I used the wired Ethernet connection to the router. This time it stayed mostly constant. It no longer jumped around between 1ms and 9ms. It would stay at 1ms or 2ms.
But it was obvious this was the real problem, once I started using a wired connection for online multiplayer.
This is the real problem with Nintendo’s online multiplayer games, and it is compounded by the fact that Nintendo did not integrate an Ethernet connection into the Wii U or the dock for the Switch, so the majority of players are still using the built in Wi-Fi connection of their consoles to play online multiplayer.
Wi-Fi does not work well, when it comes to the real time communications required for online multiplayer. Basically this is because its wireless, and subject to interference very easily.
Nintendo need to produce a decent LAN adapter for the Switch. The officially licensed Hori LAN adapter isn't even USB 3.0, where the port in the back of the dock is USB 3.0. I know that it may not yet be functioning at USB 3.0 speeds, but that is supposed to be coming.
You can also use the official Wii/ Wii U LAN adapter with the Switch, since it is listed as being compatible on Nintendo's support site. So you don't need to buy another one, if you already have that.
What LAN Adapters Are Compatible With Nintendo Switch?
Just be careful which LAN adapter you buy, some third party adapters may not work at all with the console.
(Using a LAN adapter is only one part of the solution.)
Also don't connect two routers in series, since you will create a double NAT problem. Use a networking switch and a router. Enable UPnP in your router's settings, or try manual port forwarding. If this doesn't help then its an issue with the way your ISP works or your network hardware. You should be able to get NAT Type 2 if your ISP is any good.
The use of a networking switch is only recommended where it is absolutely necessary. If you can directly wire the console to your gateway/ router, then this is what you should do. But if you have no option, then I would recommend using a networking switch which prioritises certain ethernet ports for applications like online video games. There are simple unmanaged networking switches that will prioritise the traffic through one of their ports in order to minimise any delays, and in many cases you will see them being marketed towards people who play online video games.
ZyXEL GS-105B v3 5-Port Desktop Gigabit Switch
This is another reason online multiplayer should be free because if you pay the subscription, you aren't actually paying to fix anything regarding the actual multiplayer part of the service.
"How To Reduce Lag In Super Smash Bros. 4"
"Wii U Ethernet Adapter VS Wifi / Review?"
(Lag in last match is probably due to the opposing player using Wi-Fi or having a bad ISP)
"Squid Tip: Optimize Your Internet Connection!"
In relation to input lag in games on Wii U and the Switch;
Input lag occurs because either people are using the 5GHz radio communication of the Gamepad, or they are using a Pro Controller which uses 2.4GHz Bluetooth communication. This is why many people prefer to use a wired Gamecube controller along with the Gamecube controller adapter for Smash 4.
The Gamepad and the Pro Controller both use wireless communication which can also experience interference.
Also once they start charging, it will increase. It is inevitable. Just look at how the subscription price has increased for PS Plus. And I don't believe it will stop increasing once they start. Perhaps slowly, but surely.
2. There should be a free local save data backup option.Allow both local and online save backups for games like Splatoon 2.
Nintendo have made the excuse, that they will not allow people to backup save data for games like Splatoon 2 in order to combat cheating.
The following simple, yet effective, restrictions can be implemented in the system firmware of the console, in order to prevent cheating, while also allowing people to backup their save progress for these games;
Formatting the whole system would obviously erase the save data, but this would still deter players from simply erasing and restoring their save data, like when they lose their rank in Splatoon 2.
(Please note that these restrictions cannot be based on file date as that is subject to manipulation, this is why I believe it should be based simply on the presence of valid, uncorrupted save data.)
For games that require these restrictions, they could easily be integrated into the System Firmware. Just have the system perform the check on whether or not there is already valid save data.
This is the advantage of this solution. It is so simple to implement, it would work with existing games like Splatoon 2 without needing to patch every single competitive game that you wanted to be protected by these restrictions. No need for complex handshakes with online servers, where you may need to alte write additional servlets, and then have to patch all the games to work with those servlets.
People who want the "Save Data Cloud" are covered.
People who want local backups are also covered.
It can be done.
Nintendo can't expect people to start a game as challenging as Splatoon 2 all over again from scratch, and to be constantly in fear of losing their hard earned progress on a portable system. That would be extremely frustrating, especially when there is no need for it if they used the restrictions above.
I have read at least one comment where a Splatoon 2 player actually quit playing the game when all their progress was lost, and I am willing to bet there are many others.
Remember video games are supposed to be fun.
3. Apart from the instant games library that comes with the subscription, people should always have the option to purchase, and own a video game.If people want a service where they have instant access to a library of games, along with a save data cloud backup then that is okay, but do not dictate to other people that, those should be the only options.
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